New Editors at Social History of Alcohol and Drugs

The ADHS is pleased to announce that the editorship of its journal, *The Social History of Alcohol and Drugs*, will be taken over by Prof. Nancy D. Campbell (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute), Prof. David Herzberg (Buffalo) and Dr. Lucas Richert (Strathclyde). The society would also like to express its gratitude for the work that outgoing editor, […]

via New editors for SHAD — Alcohol and Drugs History Society


ADHS 2019

The ADHS is excited to announce that its next bi-annual conference will be held between 12 and 15 June 2019, at the David F. Musto Center for Drug Policy Studies, Shanghai University, China. The conference will be organised by Prof. Jim Mills, of the University of Strathclyde and Prof. Yong-an Zhang of Shanghai University, who […]

via ADHS conference at Shanghai, 12-15 June 2019 — Alcohol and Drugs History Society

Big Pharma Round-Up V (#Cannabis edition)


Large Indoor Marijuana Commercial Growing Operation With Fans, Greenhouse, Equipment For Growing High Quality Herb. Cannabis Field Growing For Legal Recreational Use in Washington State

Sara Pascoe on #Resolutions

Sara Pascoe on resolutions

For me it was a slang phrase that ruined it. A man was talking, and I was listening politely because he was a friend of a friend. “Friend of a friend” is an excellent expression, it passively clarifies: “I know them … but I don’t like them”. An “acquaintance” is someone we haven’t decided if we like or not yet. An “associate” is a drug dealer. A “friend of a friend” is an idiot at a party you must tolerate because apparently I can’t fulfil all Rebecca’s friending needs and she wants gatherings to be full of people from work and their boyfriends. This one was telling me that he wouldn’t move over from Sydney because that’s where his mates are. “Bros before hoes,” he says. A saying I thought even the most hardened misogynist used ironically. Of course, I admire the sentiment, saving our loyalty for friends over those we must tolerate because our genitals want to get to know them. But I was shocked that someone would speak like this. We were in a kitchen, not a poorly written sitcom. And then I became sad as I was reminded once again about the gulf of understanding that can exist between human beings even if they have a friend in common. And so already 2018 was ruined. Fifty-two minutes in.

When did yours go wrong? I wonder if you felt annoyed for expecting anything to be different? It all started out great with hugging and music, then at 1am you saw the Uber surge price was in double figures and wept as you realised: it got me again. Hope. We think newness can save us, we don’t realise that we haven’t changed – only the date has.

Big Pharma Round-Up II

Here is a snapshot of the past week in Big Pharma news.  This is coming at you a little early because of the Christmas slowdown. Happy holidays.

To kick off:

The drug industry spent big!

Here’s another one on the lobbying money spent over the past months and years…

A lot of money was splashed out. ‘“Does that surprise you?” said Billy Tauzin, the former PhRMA CEO who ran the organization a decade ago as Obamacare loomed. Whenever Washington seems interested in limiting drug prices, he said, “PhRMA has always responded by increasing its resources.”’


In Canada, there’s efforts to reduce “sticker shock” when purchasing drugs.

“A Toronto family doctor thinks she has a prescription for the nasty surprise many patients experience when they go to the pharmacy and learn just how much their medications will cost.”


What about other countries besides the US? Say, Poland. It spends a lot on pharmaceuticals – but on the right drugs?

Then, more on opioids. Ravaged by Opioids!

Away from the young, and to the old: could drugs slow ageing?

“Some pharmaceutical companies are exploring whether [certain] genetic traits could be used to create anti-ageing drugs.”


And in BC, Canada: illicit placenta and stem cell therapies were seized!!!

‘The drugs confiscated from Before & After Beauty Lab on Hazelbridge Way “may pose serious risks to health,” according to a Health Canada press release.’


There was a also mysterious double murder in the world of Big Pharma!


Here at Strathclyde, CMAC welcomes Pfizer as newest partner…

“CMAC (Continuous Manufacturing and Advanced Crystallisation), a pre-competitive consortium led by the University of Strathclyde to accelerate progress in pharmaceutical manufacturing, announces that Pfizer Inc has joined as a strategic member, alongside GSK, AZ, Novartis, Bayer, Takeda, Lilly and Roche.”


Lastly, St Thomas University (Canada) is hiring a cannabis/marijuana scholar. As the cannabis industry consolidates and the medicine is refined further, the job is a useful chance to contribute to the discussion. And it looks spectacular.

2017-12-15 Final REVISED Cannabis HRC advertisement


Here is a flyer for my book on Big Pharma! Cheap, cheap, cheap.




Arthur Janov, the pioneer of Primal Scream therapy, recently passed away. Here are some thoughts about the context in which developed his therapy…


Fifty years ago, in 1967, the California-based Arthur Janov was operating in a strange mental health environment.

That year Scottish therapist R.D. Laing published The Politics of Experience, which questioned orthodox therapies. Psychologist Timothy Leary’s psychedelic experiments were publicly called out in the pages The New Republic. In 1967’s The President’s Analyst, James Coburn played a psychotherapist more than willing to seduce his attractive female patients. Disenchanted, he eventually leaves Washington, D.C. to settle in a hippie commune. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) was finally acting on the 1963 Community Mental Health Act. In 1966, the first Community Clinic opened. By 1967, 53 more opened across the country.

Arthur Janov, with degrees from UCLA and a PhD in Psychology from Claremont Graduate School and sporting a shock of curly hair, created Primal Therapy in 1967. Tapping into the California counterculture and appealing to celebrities with his avant-garde approach, Janov created an unconventional therapy that resonated throughout the 1970s and beyond.


Antiestablishment undercurrents challenged the American love affair with mental health expertise at this time. Debate was rife. It took place over psychiatric nosology (a fancy way of saying the classification of mental illnesses), scientific legitimacy, and the value of evidence-based diagnosis. The debate focused on the forces of modernization, psychopharmacology, (de)institutionalization, and social psychiatry.

There was significant chatter about mind control: The Manchurian Candidate. LSD brainwashing. MK ULTRA. This latter state-sponsored and well-funded CIA project, of course, included trippy research on behavioral therapy, chemically-induced brain concussions, brain wiping, hypnosis, extrasensory perception, cutting-edge polygraph techniques, sleep research, and on and on and on.

Ex-patient groups, whose members referred to themselves as ‘survivors’ or freed ‘slaves,’ garnered more attention. All this tumult was regarded as a “child of its rebellious, anti-establishment times.” Yet intra-professional restlessness was far from new, and it carried into the 1970s.

A majority of mental health experts recognized that the system was in disarray, a jumbled mess that President Jimmy Carter had to reform. To this end, Carter, who embodied for many the limits and austerity of the era initiated a presidential commission to investigate mental health in the U.S.

The term radical fluctuates from era to era and individual to individual, but this historical moment was definitely unique. Thinking about the 1960s-1970s probably conjures up images of Bobby Seale and Huey Newton’s Black Panther Party, which was organized in October 1966 and challenged the status quo by activating and channeling African-American disenchantment – in addition to forming coalitions with domestic and foreign organizations. Yet, the 1970s also calls to mind the Weather Underground, a homegrown terrorist organization intent on fomenting revolution, and which detonated a series of bombs in 1970.


Biopsychiatry, antipsychiatry, and a host of alternative therapies rose against this backdrop. Amid these changes, Arthur Janov pioneered and championed primal therapy with his 1970 book, The Primal Scream: The Cure for Neurosis. It was a form of therapy in which patients entered extreme emotional states to allow for the jettisoning of any deep-rooted “Primal Pain” experienced in childhood. In addition, the method was often accompanied by shouting and screaming. These “post-Primal” patients would attain a genuine normality, thereafter occupying healthy, neurosis-free bodies.

As indicated in the title of his book, he did not shy away from the curative and indeed the transformative nature of his therapy. In a series of books between 1970-1972, including The Anatomy of Mental Illness and The Primal Revolution, Janov contended that patients who concluded his therapy effectively would overcome the diseased state common to most people. He suggested, too, that his therapy offered physical cures. Repression, in Janov’s estimation, stunted physical development, and successful Primal Therapy would enable the natural growth of breasts, hair, and hands.

Janov, born and raised in California, had worked as a psychotherapist for the Los Angeles Children’s Hospital and Veterans Administration, among other places, when in 1967 he developed his theory. It was an atmosphere of questing energies and transformation in California, and one that also gave rise to Transactional Analysis and other New Age ideas.

Janov’s therapy struck a chord with the countercultural set and other Americans hungry for alternative approaches to the mainstream establishment. Finding the limelight, he went on mainstream television programs, called traditional psychiatry a hoax, and told how of how the establishment scorned him. His papers could not get published, and his colleagues walked out on his presentations. The press hated him, too, he said. Undeterred, Janov pronounced “Primal therapy is THE therapy, nothing can stop it.”

He cagily played around with themes of intergenerational antagonism, repression caused by postwar society, and the ways in which physical experiences and emotions as trumped neutral reasoning; more than that, he touted altered states of consciousness and the more specific view that personal (and perhaps national) liberation depended upon the violent overthrow of corrupt systems. These altered states, however, did not include pot, LSD, or MDMA, and had to be reached without any artificial aids. Janov fully rejected the use of illegal intoxicants, uninhibited sexual activity (“free love”), and transcendental meditation.

Seeking out altered states was not a pathway to fulfilment in his view but rather an unconscious compulsion of an unwell mind. John Lennon and Yoko Ono, who of course experimented with many substances, underwent Primal Therapy in 1970 after The Beatles disbanded —and, along with a “primal concept album” John Lennon / Plastic Ono Band (1970), helped popularize the therapy.

In assessing the mental health landscape and Primal Therapy of the 1970s, Alfred Yassky, the Executive Director of the American Psychotherapy Seminar Center, based in Manhattan, held that the tectonic plates of mental health shifted. Americans were different. The therapeutic geography had perceptibly altered. As he put it, Americans are becoming alienated and are hungering for a sense of meaning, identity, happiness, and even salvation, we are wanting more from therapies and therapists. One way of putting it is that in many ways psychotherapy has taken over the function of religion. Therefore, the therapist is supposed to take over the function and roles of shaman, guru, wiseman, minister, rabbi, or priest. We are expected to help with spiritual matters on the one hand and scientific on the other…

Primal Therapy, which shone brightly until the 1980s, helped to fill that gap.

The mental health arena in the 1970s witnessed several new entrants, with the rise of patient groups, new therapies tailored for mass consumption, and the continuance of psychedelic psychiatry. Patient-consumers could dip toes into New Age medicine, and draw from the fountain of naturopathy and homeopathy, as well as Eastern-influenced medicine or teachings from sources like the Esalen Institute in California.

They might sample alternative mental health therapies, including Primal Scream Therapy or Transactional Analysis, or find psychic solace in the form of new religious movements. Primal Scream, in short, filled a void for many Americans. It let them shriek and wail to their heart’s content.


For more short pieces on strange therapies and radical mental health, see below.

This piece is about radical psychiatry and pacification in the 1960s 

This article is about Transactional Analysis and its founding in the 1960s

Slightly different, this piece is about heroin and end-of-life discussions in the 1980s.

Disability and the Welfare State

Following party conferences, it seemed worthwhile to raise the issue of disability politics and the welfare state. The topic is tackled by Dr Jameel Hampton. As he describes it: “Created during and after the Second World War, the British Welfare State seemed to promise welfare for all, but, in its original form, excluded millions of disabled people.”

His recent book examines attempts “to reverse this exclusion.” Considering the recent emergence of the history of disability in Britain as a major area of research, the book can add to the conversation.

According to C Norris, in Oxford University Press’ This Year’s Work in Critical and Cultural Theory,  “Disability and the Welfare State in Britain is a remarkable achievement. Hampton’s excavation and elucidation of archival material related to the Disability Income Group, as well as other key players in the debates over disability and statutory welfare in Britain in the twentieth century, is both important and impressive.”

* Dr Jameel Hampton teaches at Liverpool Hope University (


Harnessing the Fierce Energy of Counterculture

Mental health knowledge and practice was highly contested in the 1960s and 70s. Struggles over homosexuality and radicalism, drug use and replicable drug trials, were part of a unique countercultural moment. These were wild times. Transactional analysis, developed by Eric Berne and Claude Steiner, was also part of this fiercely energetic moment.

In January 2017 Claude Steiner (pictured above), a clinical psychologist, passed away in California. According to his obituary in the San Francisco Chronicle, Steiner’s last words were, ‘Love is the answer’ and ‘I’m so lucky’. He had led a long and full life, and left behind an important legacy in psychology. Steiner was a founder of the Radical Therapist Collective, protested at American Psychiatric Association and American Psychological Association meetings, and edited a collection of Readings in Radical Psychiatry in 1975. Steiner also published a short children’s story called The Warm Fuzzy Tale in 1969 and Games Alcoholics Play in 1970. In 1974, he followed these books up with Scripts People Live, which was a bestseller in the United States. Most importantly, Steiner was influential in developing and popularising transactional analysis.

Steiner was born in France, relocated to Mexico, and then moved to California in 1952 to study physics. But in the aftermath of atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and seeing how physics was associated with nuclear weapons, he rejected the field. The link to bombs and bomb-making put him off. Transferring to psychology and eventually obtaining his doctorate from the University of Michigan in 1965, he became a close associate of Eric Berne. Set against the backdrop of a topsy-turvy mental health landscape, it is clear that their story had an important impact on psychology – during a unique moment in time – through the creation of transactional analysis.

The full article can be read here

Enjoy. And I’ve written similar work on the 1960s and mental health:

with Social History of Medicine…

and Hidden Persuaders…



Playing soccer has been a hobby/passion/thing to do for the majority of my life.

There’ve been no significant injuries to speak of. Until now.

So let’s talk about ‘the knee’ and pain.

new brace and crutches

A reckless and ridiculous challenge during my last game resulted in a minor fracture of the knee – and some major sit-on-my-butt time.

(Probably best that I go no further in describing the tackle, lest my blood begins to boil once more.)

So, I’ve got a near future filled with crutches, an immobilizer brace, ice, anti-inflammatory drug. Luckily, the future doesn’t hold surgical interventions! For now.

A swollen left knee

* *

Treatment for dummies (like me):

The treatment depends on the type of fracture. If you have an open wound with the fracture (I didn’t!), you may need treatment to control bleeding or prevent infection. You may need surgery to:

1) Remove all small fragments of bone
2) Wire the kneecap fragments together, if possible
3) Remove the kneecap if it has shattered
4) Your provider may put your leg in a brace, splint, knee immobilizer, or cast to keep your knee from moving while it heals.
5) Your healthcare provider may prescribe pain medicine.


Pain medication? Well yes. I have been using Extra Strength Advil. And the occasional beer. Sometimes I think I need something stronger. Other times, no.

The National news last night discussed the rise of the opioid crisis and located one of the hot zones in Ohio. The story by Vik Adophia was powerful, well-conceived and executed.

(It’s worth noting that the state of Ohio is suing 5 major drug companies for precipitating the opioid epidemic. The manufacturers of the prescription painkillers are: Purdue Pharma LP, Johnson & Johnson’s Janssen Pharmaceuticals Inc unit, a unit of Endo International Plc, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd’s Cephalon unit and Allergan Plc.)

Here are some of the top stories related to pain and opioids in the past few days.

Trump declares opioid abuse a national emergency in U.S.

Drug industry faces ‘tidal wave’ of litigation over opioid crisis

Canadian health advocates eye Portugal’s drug model to combat opioid crisis

Record number of drug-related deaths, as opioid crisis hits UK


After the knee injury, I immediately thought of Christopher Nolan’s Batman trilogy.

So what’s the future hold…


I also thought of Kobe  Bryant’s injury history. And as you can see – the Mamba’s knees featured regularly.


Stay tuned for periodic updates.


By Morgan Scott

Guest Post

(HENCH: strong and fit with very well-developed muscles; used about men)

1. Schwarzenegger: the Trendsetting Terminator

I have to admit it, growing up in the 1980s, myself and many males (and females) were in awe of bodybuilding action hero, the Austrian Oak, The Terminator himself, Arnold Schwarzenegger.

Schwarzenegger was of course not the first bodybuilder, but he was the first to bring this bizarre body-expanding behaviour into the limelight, beginning with the release of acclaimed documentary, Pumping Iron.

Schwarzenegger was and is a fascinating man. He left Austria to live the American Dream over in the US. What he didn’t know was that he would become the epitome of the American Dream. He nailed it. His vehicle? Bodybuilding. Schwarzenegger was already a local European bodybuilding champ but he knew America was the place to be to achieve his ultimate dream, to conquer bodybuilding and then conquer the movie business.

After winning Mr. Olympia 6 times he was going to hang up his posing trunks until he was convinced by the producers of Pumping Iron to carry on for one more season. They wanted to follow his quest for a  7th Mr Olympia title, which he ultimately achieved.

Years later in an interview, he confessed that he started to see the ridiculousness of it all, posing in little trunks.

From building up his body, Schwarzenegger went into acting. His breakthrough movie role came as Conan the Barbarian in 1982. The director John Milius actually told Schwarzenegger that he was too jacked for the part and that he actually had to lose muscle weight. This was the opposite of what bodybuilding was all about. However, a large part of bodybuilding is bulking and shredding where you would bulk up in off competition season and shred body fat leading up to one. Schwarzenegger had it covered and got it sorted ready for Conan.

Schwarzenegger had some challenges in his way; his English was terrible and he had a strange accent, plus Hollywood actors were just not huge behemoths back then. He also had a weird unpronounceable name and no acting experience. Well, the rest is movie history.

However, he was unique and he spurred an epidemic of muscle growth. In the wake of the Schwarzenegger phenomenon, gym memberships soared and muscles across the globe groaned and swelled in search for the ‘Pump’ and a body that would have Michelangelo’s David second-guessing himself.

Why do people build bodies in the first place? Why do they emulate Schwarzenegger? Success and motivational coach Tony Robbins tells us that one of the six human needs as to why any of us do what we do is Significance. We want to be seen, we want to ‘be’ somebody and what better way to be noticed, by having to walk into a room sideways. But do we need huge muscles to be significant in the world? At what point does growing your biceps become pathological?

Don’t get me wrong, having an awesome torso is a great thing to have. You look great, you feel great, clothes fit you well and you don’t have to worry about whether your beer belly looks big in this. What I’m wondering about is that line which separates ‘normal’ behaviour and when you enter into an obsessive world where size and body fat percentages becomes body dysmorphia – when the obsession overtakes the rational and becomes a problem, trumping the significance you seek.


During my time lifting weights in gyms I got speaking to ‘the lads’ squeezing the iron now and again. I was curious as to why they were building such massive bodies. These were not the guys who were training for a particular sport or who were fitness trainers nor movie stars. These guys built for personal goals.

When asking them why they did it, I would usually get one of two answers, one being “Woman” (or men) or as one charming young man put it bluntly “Pussy!” So sex is high on the agenda. The second answer was “Because I was bullied at school.” Both answers certainly lent themselves to the motivation of feeling significant.

Social media, particularly Instagram, has become a cultural mirror feeding a worrying narcissistic trend to achieving the perfect body. Before, we only had floor-to-ceiling mirrors in gyms to flex and pose, to see our progress and satisfy our ego. Now we have a platform to tell the whole world about our triceps with a selfie. Just another way to feel significant, especially if hundreds, if not thousands of followers can double tap on your virtual torso to give you a heart. #mustbewinninginlifenow?

OK, sure, it’s not all about feeding ones ego; it’s also about mastering oneself and feeling good. The body may be the easiest bit of us to master, because even if your soul and spirit are in shatters, at least we might protect them in slabs of muscle.

Lifting weights also feels good. When bench pressing 100 kg you’re certainly in the present and not thinking about that work report. It’s the rush, the pump and even the delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) a couple of days after is a great feeling, we’ve triumphed, we’ve mastered our body.

I do worry that most young men are growing up being seduced by what the media and advertisers portray as the perfect body. Often the ideal is an unrealistic one at that, where anything less suggests unworthiness.

3.Final Thoughts

I remember talking to an old mate, who was into bodybuilding at the time, and he said “I just want to get Huge. I want to be a monster!” He was in his late thirties when it’s much harder to achieve ‘huge’ and he seemed to be a lost boy trapped, seeking a measure of significance.

I asked “But why do you want to be huge?” The chances of becoming a world champion bodybuilder were slim to zero and becoming the next Schwarzenegger, even slimmer. He just stared into space searching for an answer.

Let’s not forget that the idea of the perfect body is driven by profiteers preying on our fragile persona and a need for significance in the world. Just buy this widget and you too can have a body like this. Young men are even turning to steroids to reach perfection sooner, but at what cost?

Can we get more sex without spending hours in the gym? Can we heal our broken selves without having to get Hench? Can we still get in shape and look great without XXL shirts? Sure we can. If it’s significance we seek, can we achieve it in other ways and channel that energy into making a difference in the world?

Damn right you can.


I’m delighted that professional photographer Morgan Scott shares his images and ideas. His exciting portfolio can be found here:

Instagram: MorganScottUK

Twitter: MorganScottUK

Watch out for more posts from Morgan in the future.