Agricultural. Ephedrine is obtained from the plant Ephedra sinica and other members of the genus Ephedra, from which the name of the substance is derived. Raw materials for the manufacture of ephedrine and traditional Chinese medicines are produced in China on a large scale.
What plant has ephedrine in it?
Ephedrine, a precursor of methamphetamine, is the active alkaloid of the plant Ephedra vulgaris, which has been used in China for centuries as the herb Ma Huang. Ma Huang was extensively marketed as a stimulant and weight loss product, and is popular among adolescents.
How is ephedrine made?
Natural ephedrine is prepared by extraction from Ephedra plants. This process is typically employed for ephedrine manufactured in China. Semi-synthetic ephedrine is prepared by fermentation of sugar followed by amination, a process known to be used in India. Fully chemically synthesized ephedrine is produced elsewhere.
Where is the ephedra plant found?
Ephedra is a genus of gymnosperm shrubs. The various species of Ephedra are widespread in many arid regions of the world, ranging across southwestern North America, southern Europe, northern Africa, southwest and central Asia, northern China and western South America.
Is it legal to grow ephedra?
ANSWER: Ephedra sinica, the herb also known as Ma Huang, is the one that was outlawed by the FDA and can no longer be legally sold as a dietary supplement. The major reason is the potential danger from the ephedra alkaloids, which are stimulant compounds that can represent an unreasonable risk of illness or injury.
What plants contain the most ephedrine?
Other plant sources that contain such ephedrine alkaloids include Sida cordifolia L. and Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Makino. Common names that have been used for the various plants that contain ephedrine alkaloids include sea grape, yellow horse, joint fir, popotillo, and country mallow.
When was ephedrine banned?
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned the sale of dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids (stimulant compounds found in Ephedra sinica and some other plants) in the United States in 2004.
What does ephedrine do to the body?
Because of its direct sympathomimetic effects, ephedrine can increase heart rate, contractility, cardiac output, and peripheral resistance. Thus, increases in both heart rate and blood pressure are common observations after ephedrine ingestion.
How long does ephedrine last in your body?
When given by injection it lasts about an hour and when taken by mouth it can last up to four hours. Common side effects include trouble sleeping, anxiety, headache, hallucinations, high blood pressure, fast heart rate, loss of appetite, and inability to urinate. Serious side effects include stroke and heart attack.
What drug class is ephedrine?
Ephedrine belongs to a class of drugs called Alpha/Beta Adrenergic Agonists.
What does ephedra smell like?
Ephedra sinica is an herbaceous perennial with a strong pine odor and astringent taste which accounts for its Chinese name – Ma Huang – which can be translated as “yellow astringent” or “yellow hemp.” Ma Huang is purported to increase mental acuity and to improve sexual performance, increase circulation, and decrease …
How do I know if I have ephedra?
Ephedra is a most unusual and thus easily remembered shrub and it is very common in semi-desert sand, rock, mesas, and canyons. Leaves are reduced to tiny dark scales; the number of leaves (and bracts) grouped together is key in identifying the various species: E. torreyana has leaves and bracts grouped in threes; E.
Does Mormon tea contain ephedrine?
Be careful not to confuse Mormon tea (Ephedra nevadensis) with ephedra (Ephedra sinica and other ephedra species). Unlike these other plants, Mormon tea does not contain ephedrine, an unsafe stimulant.
What’s the difference between ephedra and ephedrine?
Ephedrine is a chemical contained in the ephedra herb. Ephedrine has medical uses, mostly in operating rooms and intensive care units. Its chemical properties raise blood pressure and heart rate and open up the large air passages in the lungs.
What products contain ephedrine?
Product(s) containing ephedrine:
- ephedrine systemic. …
- ephedrine nasal. …
- aminophylline/amobarbital/ephedrine systemic. …
- aminophylline/ephedrine/guaifenesin/phenobarbital systemic. …
- aminophylline/ephedrine/phenobarbital/potassium iodide systemic.
Can you eat ephedra?
While the ephedra herb and products like ma huang tea are available for purchase, dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids are not. Due to safety concerns, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned products containing ephedrine in 2004 ( 1 , 19 ).