Ephedrine is obtained from the plant Ephedra sinica and other members of the genus Ephedra, from which the name of the substance is derived. Raw materials for the manufacture of ephedrine and traditional Chinese medicines are produced in China on a large scale.
How is ephedrine made synthetically?
Natural ephedrine is prepared by extraction from Ephedra plants. This process is typically employed for ephedrine manufactured in China. Semi-synthetic ephedrine is prepared by fermentation of sugar followed by amination, a process known to be used in India. Fully chemically synthesized ephedrine is produced elsewhere.
What plant contains ephedrine?
Ephedrine, a precursor of methamphetamine, is the active alkaloid of the plant Ephedra vulgaris, which has been used in China for centuries as the herb Ma Huang. Ma Huang was extensively marketed as a stimulant and weight loss product, and is popular among adolescents.
What plant does pseudoephedrine come from?
Pseudoephedrine was first known as a natural substance that occurs in shrubs of the Ephedra genus, which grow worldwide. Almost all commercial pseudoephedrine, however, is produced by fermenting dextrose in the presence of benzaldehyde.
Is it legal to grow ephedra?
ANSWER: Ephedra sinica, the herb also known as Ma Huang, is the one that was outlawed by the FDA and can no longer be legally sold as a dietary supplement. The major reason is the potential danger from the ephedra alkaloids, which are stimulant compounds that can represent an unreasonable risk of illness or injury.
How long does ephedrine last in your body?
When given by injection it lasts about an hour and when taken by mouth it can last up to four hours. Common side effects include trouble sleeping, anxiety, headache, hallucinations, high blood pressure, fast heart rate, loss of appetite, and inability to urinate. Serious side effects include stroke and heart attack.
What does ephedrine do to the body?
Because of its direct sympathomimetic effects, ephedrine can increase heart rate, contractility, cardiac output, and peripheral resistance. Thus, increases in both heart rate and blood pressure are common observations after ephedrine ingestion.
What plants contain the most ephedrine?
Other plant sources that contain such ephedrine alkaloids include Sida cordifolia L. and Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Makino. Common names that have been used for the various plants that contain ephedrine alkaloids include sea grape, yellow horse, joint fir, popotillo, and country mallow.
When was ephedrine banned?
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned the sale of dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids (stimulant compounds found in Ephedra sinica and some other plants) in the United States in 2004.
What drug class is ephedrine?
Ephedrine belongs to a class of drugs called Alpha/Beta Adrenergic Agonists.
Why Pseudoephedrine is banned?
Pseudoephedrine can be misused as an ingredient for the illicit manufacture of methamphetamines. In 2005, the FDA created the Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act, which banned over-the-counter sales of cold medicines that included the ingredient pseudoephedrine, requiring them to be sold behind the counter.
What is another name for pseudoephedrine?
Pseudoephedrine is available under the following different brand names: Sudafed, Nexafed, and Zephrex-D.
Why is pseudoephedrine banned in sports?
Pseudoephedrine (PSE), a sympathomimetic drug, commonly used in nasal decongestants, is currently banned in sports by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), as its stimulant activity is claimed to enhance performance. This meta-analysis described the effects of PSE on factors relating to sport performance.
What’s the difference between ephedra and ephedrine?
Ephedrine is a chemical contained in the ephedra herb. Ephedrine has medical uses, mostly in operating rooms and intensive care units. Its chemical properties raise blood pressure and heart rate and open up the large air passages in the lungs.
Does Mormon tea contain ephedrine?
Be careful not to confuse Mormon tea (Ephedra nevadensis) with ephedra (Ephedra sinica and other ephedra species). Unlike these other plants, Mormon tea does not contain ephedrine, an unsafe stimulant.
Can you eat ephedra?
While the ephedra herb and products like ma huang tea are available for purchase, dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids are not. Due to safety concerns, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned products containing ephedrine in 2004 ( 1 , 19 ).